MongoDB整库备份与还原以及单个collection备份、恢复方法(mongo备份数据库)满满干货

随心笔谈1年前 (2023)发布 admin
88 0


mongodump.exe备份的原理是通过一次查询获取当前服务器快照,并将快照写入磁盘中,因此这种方式保存的也不是实时的,因为在获取快照后,服务器还会有数据写入,为了保证备份的安全,同样我们还是可以利用fsync锁使服务器数据暂时写入缓存中。

高效开源数据库(mongodb)下载地址:https://www.jb51.net/softs/41751.html

备份前的检查

> show dbs

MyDB 0.0625GB

admin (empty)

bruce 0.0625GB

local (empty)

test 0.0625GB

> use MyDB

switched to db MyDB

> db.users.find()

{ “_id” : ObjectId(“4e290aa39a1945747b28f1ee”), “a” : 1, “b” : 1 }

{ “_id” : ObjectId(“4e2cd2182a65c81f21566318”), “a” : 3, “b” : 5 }

>

整库备份:

mongodump -h dbhost -d dbname -o dbdirectory

-h:MongDB所在服务器地址,例如:127.0.0.1,当然也可以指定端口号:127.0.0.1:27017

-d:需要备份的数据库实例,例如:test

-o:备份的数据存放位置,例如:c:\data\dump,当然该目录需要提前建立,在备份完成后,系统自动在dump目录下建立一个test目录,这个目录里面存放该数据库实例的备份数据。mongodump的官方说明(可通过mongodump –help查看):
options:
–help produce help message
-v [ –verbose ] be more verbose (include multiple times for more
verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)
–version print the program’s version and exit
-h [ –host ] arg mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for
sets)
–port arg server port. Can also use –host hostname:port
–ipv6 enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)
-u [ –username ] arg username
-p [ –password ] arg password
–dbpath arg directly access mongod database files in the given
path, instead of connecting to a mongod server –
needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used
if a mongod is currently accessing the same path
–directoryperdb if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate
directory
–journal enable journaling
-d [ –db ] arg database to use
-c [ –collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)
-o [ –out ] arg (=dump) output directory or “-” for stdout
-q [ –query ] arg json query
–oplog Use oplog for point-in-time snapshotting
–repair try to recover a crashed database
–forceTableScan force a table scan (do not use $snapshot)

整库恢复:

mongorestore -h dbhost -d dbname –directoryperdb dbdirectory

-h:MongoDB所在服务器地址

-d:需要恢复的数据库实例,例如:test,当然这个名称也可以和备份时候的不一样,比如test2

–directoryperdb:备份数据所在位置,例如:c:\data\dump\test,这里为什么要多加一个test,而不是备份时候的dump,读者自己查看提示吧!

–drop:恢复的时候,先删除当前数据,然后恢复备份的数据。就是说,恢复后,备份后添加修改的数据都会被删除,慎用哦!mongorestore的官方说明(可通过mongorestore –help查看):
options:
–help produce help message
-v [ –verbose ] be more verbose (include multiple times for more
verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)
–version print the program’s version and exit
-h [ –host ] arg mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for sets)
–port arg server port. Can also use –host hostname:port
–ipv6 enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)
-u [ –username ] arg username
-p [ –password ] arg password
–dbpath arg directly access mongod database files in the given
path, instead of connecting to a mongod server –
needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used
if a mongod is currently accessing the same path
–directoryperdb if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate
directory
–journal enable journaling
-d [ –db ] arg database to use
-c [ –collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)
–objcheck validate object before inserting
–filter arg filter to apply before inserting
–drop drop each collection before import
–oplogReplay replay oplog for point-in-time restore
–oplogLimit arg exclude oplog entries newer than provided timestamp
(epoch[:ordinal])
–keepIndexVersion don’t upgrade indexes to newest version
–noOptionsRestore don’t restore collection options
–noIndexRestore don’t restore indexes
–w arg (=1) minimum number of replicas per write

单个collection备份:

mongoexport -h dbhost -d dbname -c collectionname -f collectionKey -o dbdirectory

-h: MongoDB所在服务器地址

-d: 需要恢复的数据库实例

-c: 需要恢复的集合

-f: 需要导出的字段(省略为所有字段)

-o: 表示导出的文件名mongoexport的官方说明(可通过mongoexport –help查看):
–help produce help message
-v [ –verbose ] be more verbose (include multiple times for more
verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)
–version print the program’s version and exit
-h [ –host ] arg mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for
sets)
–port arg server port. Can also use –host hostname:port
–ipv6 enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)
-u [ –username ] arg username
-p [ –password ] arg password
–dbpath arg directly access mongod database files in the given
path, instead of connecting to a mongod server –
needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used
if a mongod is currently accessing the same path
–directoryperdb if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate
directory
–journal enable journaling
-d [ –db ] arg database to use
-c [ –collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)
-f [ –fields ] arg comma separated list of field names e.g. -f
name,age
–fieldFile arg file with fields names – 1 per line
-q [ –query ] arg query filter, as a JSON string
–csv export to csv instead of json
-o [ –out ] arg output file; if not specified, stdout is used
–jsonArray output to a json array rather than one object per
line
-k [ –slaveOk ] arg (=1) use secondaries for export if available, default
true
–forceTableScan force a table scan (do not use $snapshot)

单个collection恢复:

mongoimport -d dbhost -c collectionname –type csv –headerline –file

-type: 指明要导入的文件格式

-headerline: 批明不导入第一行,因为第一行是列名

-file: 指明要导入的文件路径mongoimport的官方说明(可通过mongoimport –help查看):
–help produce help message
-v [ –verbose ] be more verbose (include multiple times for more
verbosity e.g. -vvvvv)
–version print the program’s version and exit
-h [ –host ] arg mongo host to connect to ( /s1,s2 for sets)
–port arg server port. Can also use –host hostname:port
–ipv6 enable IPv6 support (disabled by default)
-u [ –username ] arg username
-p [ –password ] arg password
–dbpath arg directly access mongod database files in the given
path, instead of connecting to a mongod server –
needs to lock the data directory, so cannot be used
if a mongod is currently accessing the same path
–directoryperdb if dbpath specified, each db is in a separate
directory
–journal enable journaling
-d [ –db ] arg database to use
-c [ –collection ] arg collection to use (some commands)
-f [ –fields ] arg comma separated list of field names e.g. -f name,age
–fieldFile arg file with fields names – 1 per line
–ignoreBlanks if given, empty fields in csv and tsv will be ignored
–type arg type of file to import. default: json (json,csv,tsv)
–file arg file to import from; if not specified stdin is used
–drop drop collection first
–headerline CSV,TSV only – use first line as headers
–upsert insert or update objects that already exist
–upsertFields arg comma-separated fields for the query part of the
upsert. You should make sure this is indexed
–stopOnError stop importing at first error rather than continuing
–jsonArray load a json array, not one item per line. Currently
limited to 16MB.

其他导入与导出操作:

1. mongoimport -d my_mongodb -c user user.dat

参数说明:

-d 指明使用的库, 本例中为” my_mongodb”

-c 指明要导出的表, 本例中为”user”

可以看到导入数据的时候会隐式创建表结构

2. mongoexport -d my_mongodb -c user -o user.dat

参数说明:

-d 指明使用的库, 本例中为” my_mongodb”

-c 指明要导出的表, 本例中为”user”

-o 指明要导出的文件名, 本例中为”user.dat”

从上面可以看到导出的方式使用的是JSON 的样式.

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